(name has been changed), in southwest Poland, said she lost her job at a municipal center supporting victims of domestic violence after becoming active in the Black Protest movement. Gender attitudes . [276], Hanna H. said she knew allowing the workshops “was not a [good] political decision” and carried risks. [318], The UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR), which monitors compliance with the ICESCR, has noted that women’s access to comprehensive sexual and reproductive health is “essential to the realization of the full range of their human rights,” and called on states to remove all barriers to access, including contraception, safe abortion and post-abortion care, information, and comprehensive sexuality education. [185] According to Nowakowska, lengthy waits for services discourage some women from getting help: “A woman will call, and we’ll offer her an appointment to come in two weeks.… She’ll say, ‘But I have made the decision [to get help] today.’ Sometimes we lose them.”[186], The Women’s Rights Center in Warsaw received funding from the MRPiPS for several years through 2015. This book assesses the transformation of football fan culture from a gender perspective. [3] Female oppression stemmed partly from Confucianbeliefs about gender roles in society (such as filial piety), ideas which remain influential. Poland’s Constitution guarantees men and women equal rights and prohibits discrimination. [108] Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights of the Organization for Security and Cooperation (OSCE/ODIHR), Opinion on the Draft Act of Poland on the National Freedom Institute – Center for the Development of Civil Society, August 22, 2017, http://www.osce.org/odihr/336546 (accessed January 24, 2019). [182] Głogowska-Balcerzak spoke about the importance of such support given a lack of specialized and dedicated shelters for women survivors of violence, who may feel uncomfortable in shelters shared with men: “Some women stay with their abusive partners because they have nowhere else to go,” she said. Poland 2007. 27617/04, 57375/08, 5410/03) and reply from the authorities (15/09/2017), Council of Europe Committee of Ministers Doc. [136] “Chrońmy Dzieci! HR/NM/sf 001-2018, January 19, 2018, https://rm.coe.int/letter-to-mr-mateusz-morawiecki-prime-minister-of-the-republic-of-pola/1680784182 (accessed January 24, 2019). The report was reviewed by Janet Walsh, deputy director in the Women’s Rights Division; Lydia Gall, researcher, and Philippe Dam, advocacy director in the Europe and Central Asia Division; Graeme Reid, director of the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Rights Division; Elin Martinez, researcher in the Children’s Rights Division; Emina Cerimovic, senior researcher, and Karolina Kozik, coordinator in the Disability Rights Division; Aisling Reidy, senior legal advisor; and Tom Porteous, deputy program director. Referring to the notions of homosociality, hegemonic masculinity, and performative perspectives on gender and fandom, it investigates the processes of women entering the world of football fandom. and behavior (House, Hanges, Javidan, Dorfman, & Gupta, groups” (p. 492)—and we elaborate below how, been celebrated in various cultures over centuries, indicating its near-universal sig-. CCPR/C/PRY/CO/3 (2013); Peru, U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/PER/CO/5 (2013); and Ireland, U.N. Doc. 19. “You come [to us] because you are in trouble, and then you come to an organization that’s also in trouble,” she said. ‘The main thematic focus is female sexuality, marginalised or built on obscene stereotypes – a wife, virgin and angel vs. a lover, whore and devil’, observes Frej in her book published with Polish feminist writer Agnieszka Graff. [57] In the first two instances, a physician other than the one to perform the abortion must certify the circumstances unless the pregnancy “entails a direct threat” to the life of the woman. 20, paras. [154] This includes Women’s Rights Center in Warsaw and Women’s Rights Center in Łódź, which applied for and received funding from government ministries separately. 19, U.N. Doc. See also the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, Doc. CEDAW/C/FJI/CO/5 (2018); Marshall Islands, UN Doc. Popular opinions and scientific r, Mariko, E. (1989). Równego Traktowania,” Polityka, January 8, 2016, https://www.polityka.pl/tygodnikpolityka/kraj/1646606,1,pis-likwiduje-biuro-pelnomocnika-ds-rownego-traktowania.read (accessed January 23, 2019); Chancellery of the Prime Minister of Poland, “Rozporzadzenie Rady Ministrów z dnia 9 czerwca 2010 r. zmieniające rozporządzenie w sprawie Pełnomocnika Rządu do spraw Równego Traktowania” (“Regulation of the Council of Ministers of 9 June 2010 amending the ordinance on the Government Plenipotentiary for Equal Treatment”), Biuletyn Informacji Publicznej Rady Ministrów, https://bip.kprm.gov.pl/kpr/bip-rady-ministrow/organy-pomocnicze/pelnomocnicy-rzadu-i-pr/90,Pelnomocnik-Rzadu-do-spraw-Rownego-Traktowania.html (accessed January 23, 2019). In all but one case, the government did not provide clear explanations of why funding was discontinued. See also Teachers’ Code. [104] Previously, each ministry decided on allocation of public funds relevant to its mandate for civil society organizations.Â, The government selects NIW leadership, including its Director and Council members. Neoliberalny rasizm w Polsce, ]. Among men and women collective narcissism was associated with tolerance of domestic violence against women, whereas national in-group satisfaction was associated with rejection of violence against women. Assess ways to provide direct support to women’s human rights organizations and activists to insure uninterrupted and expanded activities, including services for survivors of violence and access to reproductive health and rights. A/RES/68/181, January 30, 2014, http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/68/181 (accessed January 24, 2019), para. [354] A 2017 European Parliament assessment of the application of the EU Victims’ Rights Directive in Poland noted lack of comprehensive and coordinated services for survivors of violence, failure to systematically implement coordination of victim support services, and lack of national funding for such services.[355]. [319] It specifically calls for liberalization of restrictive abortion laws. factors that could determine present-day gender relations. [162], Even when there are government funding opportunities, activists believe the government will not support women’s rights groups. Threats to masculinity can trigger compensatory mechanisms such as risk-taking, aggression, or disparagement of gender atypical others. This research was supported by grant 2011/01/N/HS6/05794 entitled “Ambivalent sexism in, Poland: mechanisms justifying gender inequality,” conferred to the first author by the Polish, National Science Centre and grant 2012/05/HS6/03715 entitled “Social beliefs about motherhood, and their influence on perception of mothers in the workplace” conferred to the second author by. At the international level, these include the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD); and at the regional level the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, and the Council of Europe Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence (Istanbul Convention). 30, 31(c); CESCR, Concluding Observations 2016, para. In 2016, the conservative, anti-abortion group Ordo Iuris Institute for Legal Culture wrote a bill that would have permitted abortion only in cases of direct risk to the woman’s life, resulting in a near-total ban, and increased the penalty for performing or aiding an illegal abortion. [215] Human Rights Watch interview with Agata Teutsch, August 2, 2018; Autonomia Foundation, “Oświadczenie w sprawie rozwiązania przez MRPiPS umowy nr 95_II/2016 z dnia 13 kwietnia 2016 zawartej pomiędzy Ministrem Rodziny, Pracy i Polityki Społecznej a Fundacją Autonomia”; Aleksandra Pawłowska, Krzysztof Zawiślak, MRPiPs, “Karta monitoringu” (“Monitoring card”), December 8, 2016, https://www.autonomia.org.pl/doc/karta%20monitoringu%20Fundacja%20Autonomia.pdf (accessed January 24, 2019). “The local government says there are no available spaces for organizations like [ours],” said Renata Durda, director of Blue Line, explaining that, after several years, the government abruptly stopped giving them space in 2018. “It isn’t that they don’t have it, but that they don’t really want to help us,” she said, noting that since PiS gained control, people fear doing anything the central government might consider “suspicious.” “Even local officials with whom we used to cooperate really well have started to distance themselves from us,” she said.[288]. We also wrote to the Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Family, Labor and Social Policy, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Education, and Office of the Plenipotentiary for Civil Society and Equal Treatment with our key findings and requests for information and comment. Some names and identifying details of interviewees have been changed at their request to protect their privacy and due to fear of retaliation. 1, 6; Act of 30 August 1996 amending the act on family planning, protection of the human fetus and conditions for the admission of pregnancy and about certain other acts, entered into force January 4, 1997, http://prawo.sejm.gov.pl/isap.nsf/download.xsp/WDU19961390646/O/D19960646.pdf (accessed January 24, 2019). 22 (2016) on the right to sexual and reproductive health (article 12 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights), U.N. Doc. Several principals have said they would love to, but it is too dangerous, or they don’t want to risk it.”[287]. Polish authorities should support rather than attack women’s rights and women human rights defenders. This report is based on research conducted in Poland in July and August 2018, as well as telephone and video interviews conducted between September and November 2018. The obtained results indicate that in Canada and Norway, men and women in domestic roles were judged similarly, whereas Polish and Indian students favored women over men in domestic roles, thus implying that domestic roles are perceived through the lens of gender stereotypes in these two countries. “It basically covered our activities,” she said. implicit, reconcile male dominance with intimate heterosexual interdependence. [5] High-level PiS leaders and politicians have taken no action to counter smear campaigns vilifying women’s rights groups and activists. Unpaid work of women. [131] “Zalewska w TOK FM krytycznie o edukatorach seksualnych. [50] A 2017 European Parliament review of Poland’s application of the EU Victims’ Rights Directive also reported lack of comprehensive and coordinated services for survivors of violence. [134] Rozporządzenie Ministra Edukacji Narodowej z dnia 11 sierpnia 2017 r. w sprawie wymagań wobec szkół i placówek, Minister Edukacji Narodowej (Regulation of the Minister of National Education of August 11, 2017, on the requirements for schools and institutions), Warsaw, August 29, 2017, http://dziennikustaw.gov.pl/du/2017/1611/1 (accessed January 24, 2019); List Zastępczyni Rzecznika Praw Obywatelskich ds. 24, 25(f). Conduct urgent monitoring on Poland’s implementation of the Istanbul Convention and present findings publicly. [306] The UN Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights defenders explains this as a requirement for states to “adopt legislative, administrative or other measures to facilitate, or as a minimum not to hinder, the effective exercise of the right to access funding.”[307] It notes that “the only appropriate legal framework” regulating access to state funding is one that abides by international human rights norms. A/HRC/38/46, May 14, 2018, http://undocs.org/en/A/HRC/38/46 (accessed January 23, 2019), para. “Many [such organizations] received funding, so the government can still say they are funding anti-violence.”[165]. Over the past years, the EU has perhaps too narrowly focused on how right-wing authoritarianism undermines democracy in Poland and Hungary. [280] Human Rights Watch interview with Hanna H., Kraków, August 2, 2018. Representatives of the Ombudsman for Human Rights raised concerns that MRPiPS intends to increase protections for families versus individual victims, in line with PiS’ emphasis on reinforcing traditional family units. The center has cut hours of service provision, since many volunteers can only work evenings. Gal and Kligman offer a systematic comparison of East Central European gender relations with those of western welfare states, and with the presocialist, bourgeois past. In a widely-reported case, authorities from the provincial Ministry of Education, or the Kuratorium, undertook investigations and disciplinary proceedings against nine staff members and a headmistress at a public school for children with intellectual disabilities in Zabrze, Silesia province. 59-61; CRC Committee, General Comment No. [171] Głogowska-Balcerzak noted there is no appeals procedure for decisions during the grantee selection process. This heightens risks for activists. Joanna Piotrowska, director of Feminoteka, said government-appointed headmasters fear seeming in opposition to PiS. Semi-structured interviews were thematically analyzed in relation to sexual scripts theory and the participants’ specific sociocultural background. Zakopane walczy z ustawą o przeciwdziałaniu przemocy w rodzinie. [345] CEDAW Committee, General Recommendation no. [66] “Skazany za namawianie dziewczyny do aborcji,” nto.pl, July 25, 2011, https://nto.pl/skazany-za-namawianie-dziewczyny-do-aborcji/ar/4442227 (accessed January 23, 2019). [249] Human Rights Watch telephone interviews with Ewa Wnorowska, Katarzyna Gwóźdź, and Aleksandra Piotrowska, September 17, 2018, and Katarzyna Gwóźdź, October 17, 2018. 76. [34] “Minister Wojciech Kaczmarczyk speaks at the general debate of the Commission on the Status of Women,” Permanent Mission of the Republic of Poland to the United Nations in New York, March 15, 2016, https://nowyjorkonz.msz.gov.pl/en/poland_in_the_un/speeches_and_documents/minister_wojciech_kaczmarczyk_speaks_at_the_general_debate_of_the_commission_on_the_status_of_women?channel=www (accessed January 23, 2019). CHANGE LANGUAGE. Several activists expressed fear of surveillance following the raids, including via computer equipment that was confiscated and returned. Thus, for women raised in a society with highly conservative views about sexuality, female sexual satisfaction was a neglected aspect of sex. Share on Twitter. In this article, we contribute to the literature which holds that in current Western societies, gender prejudice manifests itself in a more 'benevolent' form which encompasses. 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