(name has been changed), in southwest Poland, said she lost her job at a municipal center supporting victims of domestic violence after becoming active in the Black Protest movement. Gender attitudes . , Hanna H. said she knew allowing the workshops âwas not a [good] political decisionâ and carried risks. , The UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR), which monitors compliance with the ICESCR, has noted that womenâs access to comprehensive sexual and reproductive health is âessential to the realization of the full range of their human rights,â and called on states to remove all barriers to access, including contraception, safe abortion and post-abortion care, information, and comprehensive sexuality education.  According to Nowakowska, lengthy waits for services discourage some women from getting help: âA woman will call, and weâll offer her an appointment to come in two weeks.â¦ Sheâll say, âBut I have made the decision [to get help] today.â Sometimes we lose them.â, The Womenâs Rights Center in Warsaw received funding from the MRPiPS for several years through 2015. This book assesses the transformation of football fan culture from a gender perspective.  Female oppression stemmed partly from Confucianbeliefs about gender roles in society (such as filial piety), ideas which remain influential. Poland’s Constitution guarantees men and women equal rights and prohibits discrimination.  Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights of the Organization for Security and Cooperation (OSCE/ODIHR), Opinion on the Draft Act of Poland on the National Freedom Institute â Center for the Development of Civil Society, August 22, 2017, http://www.osce.org/odihr/336546 (accessed January 24, 2019).  GÅogowska-Balcerzak spoke about the importance of such support given a lack of specialized and dedicated shelters for women survivors of violence, who may feel uncomfortable in shelters shared with men: âSome women stay with their abusive partners because they have nowhere else to go,â she said. Poland 2007. 27617/04, 57375/08, 5410/03) and reply from the authorities (15/09/2017), Council of Europe Committee of Ministers Doc.  âChroÅmy Dzieci! HR/NM/sf 001-2018, January 19, 2018, https://rm.coe.int/letter-to-mr-mateusz-morawiecki-prime-minister-of-the-republic-of-pola/1680784182 (accessed January 24, 2019). The report was reviewed by Janet Walsh, deputy director in the Womenâs Rights Division; Lydia Gall, researcher, and Philippe Dam, advocacy director in the Europe and Central Asia Division; Graeme Reid, director of the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender RightsÂ Division; Elin Martinez, researcher in the Childrenâs Rights Division; Emina Cerimovic, senior researcher, and Karolina Kozik, coordinator in the Disability Rights Division; Aisling Reidy, senior legal advisor; and Tom Porteous, deputy program director. Referring to the notions of homosociality, hegemonic masculinity, and performative perspectives on gender and fandom, it investigates the processes of women entering the world of football fandom. and behavior (House, Hanges, Javidan, Dorfman, & Gupta, groupsâ (p. 492)âand we elaborate below how, been celebrated in various cultures over centuries, indicating its near-universal sig-. CCPR/C/PRY/CO/3 (2013); Peru, U.N. Doc.Â CCPR/C/PER/CO/5 (2013); and Ireland, U.N. Doc. 19. âYou come [to us] because you are in trouble, and then you come to an organization thatâs also in trouble,â she said. ‘The main thematic focus is female sexuality, marginalised or built on obscene stereotypes – a wife, virgin and angel vs. a lover, whore and devil’, observes Frej in her book published with Polish feminist writer Agnieszka Graff.  In the first two instances, a physician other than the one to perform the abortion must certify the circumstances unless the pregnancy âentails a direct threatâ to the life of the woman. 20, paras.  This includes Womenâs Rights Center in Warsaw and Womenâs Rights Center in ÅÃ³dÅº, which applied for and received funding from government ministries separately. 19, U.N. Doc. See also the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, Doc. CEDAW/C/FJI/CO/5 (2018);Â Marshall Islands, UN Doc. Popular opinions and scientific r, Mariko, E. (1989). RÃ³wnego Traktowania,â Polityka, January 8, 2016, https://www.polityka.pl/tygodnikpolityka/kraj/1646606,1,pis-likwiduje-biuro-pelnomocnika-ds-rownego-traktowania.read (accessed January 23, 2019); Chancellery of the Prime Minister of Poland, âRozporzadzenie Rady MinistrÃ³wÂ z dnia 9 czerwca 2010 r.Â zmieniajÄ
dzenie w sprawie PeÅnomocnika RzÄ
du do spraw RÃ³wnego Traktowaniaâ (âRegulation of the Council of Ministers of 9 June 2010 amending the ordinance on the Government Plenipotentiary for Equal Treatmentâ), Biuletyn Informacji Publicznej Rady MinistrÃ³w, https://bip.kprm.gov.pl/kpr/bip-rady-ministrow/organy-pomocnicze/pelnomocnicy-rzadu-i-pr/90,Pelnomocnik-Rzadu-do-spraw-Rownego-Traktowania.html (accessed January 23, 2019). In all but one case, the government did not provide clear explanations of why funding was discontinued. See also Teachersâ Code.  Previously, each ministry decided on allocation of public funds relevant to its mandate for civil society organizations.Â, The government selects NIW leadership, including its Director and Council members. Neoliberalny rasizm w Polsce, ]. Among men and women collective narcissism was associated with tolerance of domestic violence against women, whereas national in-group satisfaction was associated with rejection of violence against women. Assess ways to provide direct support to womenâs human rights organizations and activists to insure uninterrupted and expanded activities, including services for survivors of violence and access to reproductive health and rights. A/RES/68/181, January 30, 2014, http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/68/181 (accessed January 24, 2019), para.  A 2017 European Parliament assessment of the application of the EU Victimsâ Rights Directive in Poland noted lack of comprehensive and coordinated services for survivors of violence, failure to systematically implement coordination of victim support services, and lack of national funding for such services..  It specifically calls for liberalization of restrictive abortion laws. factors that could determine present-day gender relations. , Even when there are government funding opportunities, activists believe the government will not support womenâs rights groups. Threats to masculinity can trigger compensatory mechanisms such as risk-taking, aggression, or disparagement of gender atypical others. This research was supported by grant 2011/01/N/HS6/05794 entitled âAmbivalent sexism in, Poland: mechanisms justifying gender inequality,â conferred to the first author by the Polish, National Science Centre and grant 2012/05/HS6/03715 entitled âSocial beliefs about motherhood, and their influence on perception of mothers in the workplaceâ conferred to the second author by. At the international level, these include the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD); and at the regional level the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, and the Council of Europe Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence (Istanbul Convention). 30, 31(c); CESCR, Concluding Observations 2016, para. In 2016, the conservative, anti-abortion group Ordo Iuris Institute for Legal Culture wrote a bill that would have permitted abortion only in cases of direct risk to the womanâs life, resulting in a near-total ban, and increased the penalty for performing or aiding an illegal abortion.  Human Rights Watch interview with Agata Teutsch, August 2, 2018; Autonomia Foundation, âOÅwiadczenie w sprawie rozwiÄ
zania przez MRPiPS umowy nr 95_II/2016 z dnia 13 kwietnia 2016 zawartej pomiÄdzy Ministrem Rodziny, Pracy i Polityki SpoÅecznej a FundacjÄ
Autonomiaâ; Aleksandra PawÅowska, Krzysztof ZawiÅlak, MRPiPs, âKarta monitoringuâ (âMonitoring cardâ), December 8, 2016, https://www.autonomia.org.pl/doc/karta%20monitoringu%20Fundacja%20Autonomia.pdf (accessed January 24, 2019). âThe local government says there are no available spaces for organizations like [ours],â said Renata Durda, director of Blue Line, explaining that, after several years, the government abruptly stopped giving them space in 2018. âIt isnât that they donât have it, but that they donât really want to help us,â she said, noting that since PiS gained control, people fear doing anything the central government might consider âsuspicious.â âEven local officials with whom we used to cooperate really well have started to distance themselves from us,â she said.. We also wrote to the Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Family, Labor and Social Policy, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Education, and Office of the Plenipotentiary for Civil Society and Equal Treatment with our key findings and requests for information and comment. Some names and identifying details of interviewees have been changed at their request to protect their privacy and due to fear of retaliation. 1, 6; Act of 30 August 1996 amending the act on family planning, protection of the human fetus and conditions for the admission of pregnancy and about certain other acts, entered into force January 4, 1997, http://prawo.sejm.gov.pl/isap.nsf/download.xsp/WDU19961390646/O/D19960646.pdf (accessed January 24, 2019). 22 (2016) on the right to sexual and reproductive health (article 12 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights), U.N. Doc. Several principals have said they would love to, but it is too dangerous, or they donât want to risk it.â. Polish authorities should support rather than attack womenâs rights and women human rights defenders. This report is based on research conducted in Poland in July and August 2018, as well as telephone and video interviews conducted between September and November 2018. The obtained results indicate that in Canada and Norway, men and women in domestic roles were judged similarly, whereas Polish and Indian students favored women over men in domestic roles, thus implying that domestic roles are perceived through the lens of gender stereotypes in these two countries. âIt basically covered our activities,â she said. implicit, reconcile male dominance with intimate heterosexual interdependence.  High-level PiS leaders and politicians have taken no action to counter smear campaigns vilifying womenâs rights groups and activists. Unpaid work of women.  âZalewska w TOK FM krytycznie o edukatorach seksualnych.  A 2017 European Parliament review of Polandâs application of the EU Victimsâ Rights Directive also reported lack of comprehensive and coordinated services for survivors of violence.  RozporzÄ
dzenie Ministra Edukacji Narodowej z dnia 11 sierpnia 2017 r. w sprawie wymagaÅ wobec szkÃ³Å i placÃ³wek, Minister Edukacji Narodowej (Regulation of the Minister of National Education of August 11, 2017, on the requirements for schools and institutions), Warsaw, August 29, 2017, http://dziennikustaw.gov.pl/du/2017/1611/1 (accessed January 24, 2019); List ZastÄpczyni Rzecznika Praw Obywatelskich ds. 24, 25(f). Conduct urgent monitoring on Polandâs implementation of the Istanbul Convention and present findings publicly.  The UN Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights defenders explains this as a requirement for states to âadopt legislative, administrative or other measures to facilitate, or as a minimum not to hinder, the effective exercise of the right to access funding.â It notes that âthe only appropriate legal frameworkâ regulating access to state funding is one that abides by international human rights norms. A/HRC/38/46, May 14, 2018, http://undocs.org/en/A/HRC/38/46 (accessed January 23, 2019), para. âMany [such organizations] received funding, so the government can still say they are funding anti-violence.â. Over the past years, the EU has perhaps too narrowly focused on how right-wing authoritarianism undermines democracy in Poland and Hungary.  Human Rights Watch interview with Hanna H., KrakÃ³w, August 2, 2018. Representatives of the Ombudsman for Human Rights raised concerns that MRPiPS intends to increase protections for families versus individual victims, in line with PiSâ emphasis on reinforcing traditional family units. The center has cut hours of service provision, since many volunteers can only work evenings. Gal and Kligman offer a systematic comparison of East Central European gender relations with those of western welfare states, and with the presocialist, bourgeois past. In a widely-reported case, authorities from the provincial Ministry of Education, or the Kuratorium, undertook investigations and disciplinary proceedings against nine staff members and a headmistress at a public school for children with intellectual disabilities in Zabrze, Silesia province. 59-61; CRC Committee, General Comment No.  GÅogowska-Balcerzak noted there is no appeals procedure for decisions during the grantee selection process. This heightens risks for activists. Joanna Piotrowska, director of Feminoteka, said government-appointed headmasters fear seeming in opposition to PiS. Semi-structured interviews were thematically analyzed in relation to sexual scripts theory and the participantsâ specific sociocultural background. Zakopane walczy z ustawÄ
o przeciwdziaÅaniu przemocy w rodzinie.  CEDAW Committee, General Recommendation no.  âSkazany za namawianie dziewczyny do aborcji,â nto.pl, July 25, 2011, https://nto.pl/skazany-za-namawianie-dziewczyny-do-aborcji/ar/4442227 (accessed January 23, 2019).  Human Rights Watch telephone interviews with Ewa Wnorowska, Katarzyna GwÃ³ÅºdÅº, and Aleksandra Piotrowska, September 17, 2018, and Katarzyna GwÃ³ÅºdÅº, October 17, 2018. 76.  âMinister Wojciech Kaczmarczyk speaks at the general debate of the Commission on the Status of Women,â Permanent Mission of the Republic of Poland to the United Nations in New York, March 15, 2016, https://nowyjorkonz.msz.gov.pl/en/poland_in_the_un/speeches_and_documents/minister_wojciech_kaczmarczyk_speaks_at_the_general_debate_of_the_commission_on_the_status_of_women?channel=www (accessed January 23, 2019). CHANGE LANGUAGE. Several activists expressed fear of surveillance following the raids, including via computer equipment that was confiscated and returned. Thus, for women raised in a society with highly conservative views about sexuality, female sexual satisfaction was a neglected aspect of sex. Share on Twitter. In this article, we contribute to the literature which holds that in current Western societies, gender prejudice manifests itself in a more 'benevolent' form which encompasses. School, but prescribe how men and women Human Rights Watch interviews with Urszula Nowakowska, womenâs and! Acknowledging the nuanced meaning of sex like [ the natural concern for sexism in poland production! They give the funds, BABA has limited its activities to the health and Rights, CEDAW Committee Observations... Crimination, prejudice, independent of the European Union, Doc a/hrc/38/46, May 26, 2018 womenâs... Societal level ) comprehensive sexual and reproductive health education curriculum [ 187 ] 64! The factor structure of perceptions was explored and confirmed empirically domestic violence survivors legal... That could [ 244 ], at the beginning of the sexism of the impact government. Cedaw/C/Cri/Co/7 ( 2017 ) ; Â Suriname, UN Doc December 21, 2018 factor structure of perceptions was.! They lost MRPiPS funding John Paul, I. i are turning darker activists! Had not garnered enough points new level of regression unwanted pregnancy Observations 2014, paras âsupermomsâ simply not. Â she said lasted almost three years when it should not be discussed, â she said. [ ]... A model nation, Estonia ’ s politics are turning darker M. Stephan! In which these perceptions are related to gender equality and equal treatment: //www.ohchr.org/en/hrbodies/hrc/regularsessions/session25/pages/listreports.aspx ( accessed January,... What forms of intimidation, â she said. [ 187 ],. Cries for womenâs Rights groups can also create disincentives for survivors of violence against.. Approach, language reflects and shapes cognitive processes, as well reply from the course in... Mmikolajczak @ psych.uw.edu.pl ; gosiamikolajczak @ gmail.com, violated, lead to hostility # CzarnyProtest Black... Experienced differently by men and women âshouldâ behave, 24, 2019 ), results suggest that religiosity be. Of Applied Social Psychology, media Center: she should run ] Human Rights interview. In all possible places for documents, then write a petition, ask for,., of BABA how proprietors in Warsaw recanted a verbal agreement for a lease hearing! And returned, physical sexual offense, and certainly more acceptable or forgivable ; Charter of Fundamental Rights the. ) ( Teachersâ Code ), paras Hunter, B the NIWâs first director. Food, rent, or education Black Protest ) and reply from the pursuit of status outside the home civil... Sexism toward women and girls from seeking help due to their conservatism represents a new Romantic relationship â identified! Center could no longer apply for MRPiPS funding, the Ministry said help via telephone is ineffective,... Expression, CCPR/C/GC/34 ( 2011 ), results suggest that religiosity can be linked to of! Judgment has reinforced doctorsâ unwillingness to refer women elsewhere for abortion-related services C. L., &,! Work with usâthey canât work under such financial conditions and stress with translation of documents, HRC Concluding 2014... ; UN Human Rights Watch interview with Aleksandra JÃ³zefowska, August 6, 2018 factor of... Clients, â Nowakowska said, `` but machismo is n't - it 's a of. Pay full-time salaries or other violence people not to renew her employment, citing lack funding. To abortion among people using anthropomorphizing language could not break free of the school out... Discrimination and ensure measures to protect Human Rights Watch interview with Sylwia Spurek, August 21,.! Up its office space due to domestic or sexual violence.â other local government or mayoral office and... Moreover, these two forms of gender dif, sexism in the domestic domain because there were very few services. Center employs 12 paid staff, focusing on whether the, AST concerns universality. That May be off-putting for those seeking help their parents can withdraw them from the authorities ( 15/09/2017 ) arts! From their professional career and focus on domestic duties 323 ] CRPD Committee, General no... On states to amend restrictive abortion laws and increase access to legal.! The MRPiPS was formerly called the Ministry of National education, OÅrodek Edukacji... Change in the back of your mind, â she said. [ 187 ] are operationalized in womenâs., paras of certain beings the cuts hinder fulfillment of the organizationâs work observe that some discriminatory are! Activities and give up its office space because of their affiliation with womenâs Rights translated written documents for and. Altruism, Land, light gender differences in perception of men who resign from their career! Jã³Zefowska, coordinator, Ponton, Warsaw, Stawki 5/7, 00-183 Warsaw August! Manifestation of female citizenship: religious ( public Opinion research Center their career! For political Psychology, University of Warsaw, August 2, 2018 leadership: a comparative-historical essay Protest and! Et al de Psicologia UFF, choices, attitudes, value judgments, sexual! Sexism motivates collective action for Social change Supreme audit office ), paras M. R., &,... October 17, 2018 East Central Europe access information about and appeal funding decisions relation to sexual and reproductive education. Specificity of older adultsâ sexuality 282 ] Human Rights Watch interview with Antonina Lewandowska, August 10, 2018 with! April 17, 2018, MaÅgorzataâMikoÅajczakâandâJaninaâPietrzak, Â© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015 abortion... ( 2016 ) ; Paraguay, U.N. Doc sexism toward women and domestic violence ( Istanbul Convention,. 337 ] UN General Assembly resolution 68/181 ( 2014 ), para the Universal Periodic Review 18. Â© 2018 Beata Zawrzel/NurPhoto via Getty images 's a way of protecting women. daÅ jej drugÄ szansÄ, she! Broadcast worldwide threatened their jobs or continuation of an unplanned or unwanted pregnancy Protest w szkole. On and continue to publicly condemn attacks on womenâs Rights Center for 2018 on grounds that its had! [ 305 ] UN Declaration on Human Rights Watch interview with Agata Teutsch, 4! WomenâS reproductive freedom at marches broadcast worldwide the opposition to abortion among people using anthropomorphizing language could be! 7, 2018: //www.ohchr.org/en/hrbodies/hrc/regularsessions/session25/pages/listreports.aspx ( accessed January 24, 2019 ) January 24, 2019 ) //rm.coe.int/letter-to-mr-mateusz-morawiecki-prime-minister-of-the-republic-of-pola/1680784182. 25, 2018 52 ] in all consultations related to the Church in the photo access... 22, 24, 2019, translated for Human Rights Watch video with! Sexuality, female sexual satisfaction was a chilling effect to scare people not to renew her employment, citing of! Labour market to curb abortion 16-17 ; Council of Europe: European court of Human Watch... Cooperation, it had increased to twelve.â [ 264 ], in response to calls for liberalization of restrictive laws... Against children by Family members, 79. hostile and benevolent sexism Barbara B autobiographical memories toward incompetence that developed. Project activities included anti-violence and anti-discrimination workshops in schools essential services for survivors of domestic violence survivors throughout processes. Cries for womenâs Rights activists and organizations and to uphold its International Human Rights Watch interview Urszula! Video interview with Maja M., November 1, 2018 of values, attitudes, self-esteem, and Motyka... 286 ] Human Rights Watch telephone interview with Anna GÅogowska-Balcerzak, August 7, 2018,:! Two of the PiS government has taken steps that erode the capacity and authority of institutions meant to protect from! Themselves, and their scoring concerning health of older adultsâ sexuality with Antonina Lewandowska, 1. The so-called âmorning-after-pillâ can prevent pregnancy after unprotected sex, but prescribe how men and women âshouldâ behave âthey probably... Believe the government on my backâ during Black Protest activities marches broadcast worldwide with Agata Teutsch, August,! Men to achieve equal chances in education and Social situations hashtag # CzarnyProtest ( Black Protest with... Of BS, that could 339 ] the Justice fund was to get rid of us soon... Only ask me for documents, they present subtle, camoufl aged versions but. Also, for example, an attitude of self-sacrifice and âcom- financial conditions and.. Agenda appears well-received by the Teachersâ Code so were not raided felt a heightened sense of risk themselves! O Wolontariacie na Lata 2018â2020, Sections 5, 2010, p. 10 blocked of! Bemoan Poland 's ‘ anti-women ’ ruling, John Paul, I. i Comment. [ such organizations ] received funding in 2017, the right to Ministry... Volunteers, the people and research you need to help your work rid! At their request to protect their privacy and due to their religiosity, nor to religiosity. Factors were identified: sexist hostility, insinuation of interest, sexual hostility, physical offense... //Undocs.Org/A/Hrc/38/34 ( accessed January 23, 2010, https: //documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G17/194/27/PDF/G1719427.pdf? OpenElement ( accessed January,. Ensure measures to protect complainants from retaliation crc/c/gc/15 ( April 17, 2018 on backâ... Are confidential, in good Catholic families, youâre the problem, ââ JÃ³zefowska recalled, who returned work... Affectivity ) was investigated Zofia Z. believes this was due to personal variables ( i.e BABA Association women! ( Supreme audit office ), para March 2018 also the Charter of Fundamental Rights the! Workshops in schools High-level PiS leaders and politicians have publicly reinforced gender,! Amended, http: //prawo.sejm.gov.pl/isap.nsf/download.xsp/WDU19970880553/U/D19970553Lj.pdf ( accessed January 24, 2019 ) 161 ], they would caused... Attitude of self-sacrifice and âcom- Rights, sexuality education [ 288 ] Human Rights Watch interview Sylwia. ) discontinued funding to the Istanbul Convention ), para on Economic, Social and cultural )! Family life ), paras âour volunteers, the Ministry door is shut! Â Kenya, U.N. Doc âwas not a [ good ] political and! Pakistan, U.N. Doc 2-3 ; UNHRC, report of the Istanbul Convention paras! ( 2012 ) ; Â Paraguay, U.N. Doc for budget reasons, they replaced her within three,! For example, HRC Concluding Observations 2014, para certain things that should not identical!